The Roads to Removal report is a national scale analysis of carbon dioxide removal required to achieve a net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) economy in the United States by 2050. Watch the overview video below to learn more.

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the Report

Roads to Removal is a first-of-its-kind analysis that evaluates the cost and potential capacity for conducting carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR) in the United States. A team of researchers led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and joined by more than 68 researchers at thirteen academic institutions evaluated the feasibility, capacity, impacts, and costs of CDR methods including forest management, managed cropland soils, biomass carbon removal and storage (BiCRS), and direct air capture (DAC).

The report highlights the importance of CO2 removal to complement decarbonization efforts in the United States’ energy, industrial, and agricultural sectors, and assesses the amount of land and additional energy required for each CDR approach. Environmental and socioeconomic co-benefits were also evaluated to minimize the risk of negative environmental, economic, and public health impacts. CDR approaches with insufficient data on costs, impacts, and necessary resources were not included in the report.

The Roads to Removal report is intended as a detailed examination of regionally specific opportunities for CDR, given careful consideration of local and national needs and resource constraints, rather than a prescriptive plan. Communities and CDR practitioners can collaborate to decide where, when, and how much of each approach fits into their local needs and the contribution they can make to the national effort to eliminate climate pollution.

Readers can start by exploring the techniques of interest, which are described in detail in chapters on Forests, Soils, Geologic Storage, BiCRS, and Direct Air Capture. Alternatively, readers can begin by looking at the region they call home, and consider the primary benefits and limitations described there. The report also includes a discussion of the socioeconomic and environmental variables relevant to each technology and region at the end of each CDR approach chapter. A more detailed discussion of the analysis methods and results for environmental justice is also presented.